Vol 2-1 Case Report

Cryptococcal Cellulitis in a Patient Immunocompromised Secondary to Cirrhosis

Dillon D Clarey, Adam V Sutton, Ryan M Trowbridge*

University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Dermatology, Omaha, NE

Cryptococcal cellulitis is a rare dermatologic diagnosis most often seen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of disseminated Cryptococcus presenting as cellulitis in a patient with decompensated cirrhosis. We discuss various presentations of Cryptococcus in the skin, both as primary and disseminated disease.

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Vol 2-1 Review Article

Electronic Tattoos: A Promising Approach to Real-time Theragnostics

Nicholas X. Williams1, Aaron D. Franklin1,2*

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham NC 27708, USA

2Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham NC 27708, USA

Real-time monitoring of relevant biological signals, in combination with the timely delivery of target drugs, would be ideal for treating most medical conditions. However, access to biological fluids without a bulky, costly, and cumbersome apparatus remains challenging, as does the ability to deliver drugs of controlled dosage in a similarly unobtrusive fashion. The skin provides a promising medium for access and dosing using biomedical electronics, colloquially dubbed electronic tattoos. Recent developments in biologically compatible, flexible materials and devices have brought electronic tattoos closer to reality for sensing biomarkers extracted from the skin and delivering target drugs through the dermis. In this review, the materials and engineering requirements, fabrication developments, and sensing and therapeutic advancements of electronic tattoos are presented. Three components are required for a complete theragnostic electronic tattoo system: 1) supporting electronics for control and data transmission; 2) diagnostic sensors, categorized as mechanical (measure an internal stimulus) and chemical (measure a chemical change); and 3) therapeutics for drug delivery. The leading approaches for fabrication are summarized, including the transfer of flexible devices to the skin and the direct printing of devices onto the epidermis. Altogether, while significant obstacles remain, the advancements in this field show great promise for realizing electronic tattoo theragnostics to revolutionize point-of-care medicine.

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Vol 2-1 Mini Review Article

Nail Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis for the Dermatologist

Rebecca Liu1, Braden M. Candela2, Joseph C English III2*

1University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

2Department of Dermatology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA

Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) may affect up to a third of patients with psoriasis. It is characterized by diverse clinical phenotypes and as such, is often underdiagnosed, leading to disease progression and poor outcomes. Nail psoriasis (NP) has been identified as a risk factor for PsA, given the anatomical connection between the extensor tendon and nail matrix. Therefore, it is important for dermatologists to screen patients exhibiting symptoms of NP for joint manifestations. On physical exam, physicians should be evaluating for concurrent skin and nail involvement, enthesitis, dactylitis, and spondyloarthropathy. Imaging modalities, including radiographs and ultrasound, may also be helpful in diagnosis of both nail and joint pathology. Physicians should refer to Rheumatology when appropriate. Numerous systemic therapies are effective at addressing both NP and PsA including DMARDs, biologics, and small molecule inhibitors. These treatments ultimately can inhibit the progression of inflammatory disease and control symptoms, thereby improving quality of life for patients.

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